Monday, February 22, 2010




This Study aim at examining the extent to which Lutheran Seminary Secondary schools/ Owners as partners in the provision of education finance secondary education in Tanzania, taking two secondary schools in Tanga and one in Morogoro region as a case in point. Chapter one will present background information of the research problem, Statement of the research problem, purpose and objective of the Study, limitation and delimitation of the Study, research talks and questions conceptual frame work, significance of the Study, limitation and delimitation of the Study and finally the chapter ends with the definition key concepts.

1.1 Background of the Study
Education is the key to a genuine, informed and engaged citizenship and is thus the cement of greater democracy, respect of human rights, gender equality, peace and stability, (Commonwealth Education Partnership,2004). Financing education is the responsibility of both the government and community in general in order to make sure that every child has access to education. There is need of involving individual persons, NGOs and CBOs in financing education particularly secondary education in order to reduce the government burden of financing education all alone. In line with this view Makene (2004), maintain that, allowing partnership in the provision of secondary education may rid the government of huge expenditure on Secondary education.

More over, different partners can result to competition which in turn can contribute to good performance. Religious organizations, particularly Lutheran Missions, for long time have been active partners in financing Secondary education. This involvement of Lutheran Church has contributed to the quality and high performance of secondary education in these Lutheran owned schools.

To date there are different partners involved in financing Secondary education but Lutheran has taken considerable lead. This is a result of changes in policy, as it has been observed by Sammof (1994) that in 1996 change of policy resulting from the economic crisis and the agreement negotiated with the IMF, meant that private schools which had previously been discouraged but tolerated, was now actively encouraged.

According to Northern Zonal Statistics 2006, in Kilimanjaro and Tanga regions had 28 secondary schools owned by RC,18 Secondary schools under ELCT, one secondary school under Tanzania assembles of God, two secondary school under Seventh Day Adventist, 13 secondary schools under Central Government, 13 secondary under Islamic and 221 secondary schools under Community Based.

However, there is no Study that has been conducted specifically in relation to financing Lutheran Seminary schools. Since the Lutheran Church play an important part of enhancing the equality of education in the country, the researcher sees that there is a need to undertake the Study to examine the sources of revenues of secondary school owned by Lutheran Church in Tanga and Morogoro regions by finding out sources of funds, its management and utilization.

1.2 Statement of the Study
Lutheran Church for a long time has been an active partner in financing education in Tanzania, particularly secondary education. The studies by Cameron and Dodd (1970), and others showed that Churches lead in the provision of quality education in the country.

This has been noted in relation to the expansion of schools built, size of students enrolled, and in terms of extent performance. Moreover, Lutheran based schools have been potential contributors in terms of educational outcomes such as the national skilled manpower. Effective financing of secondary education in Lutheran Seminary schools depend on a number of factors such as sources of funds, its management and utilization of the funds.

Some studies related to financing of education in general have come up with some important information about the involvement of religious organization in promotion of education in Tanzania particularly Lutheran church. However, there is no enough record to show the extent to which Church finance secondary education in Tanzania with special reference to Lutheran Seminary Church owned school in Tanga region.

From the above arguments, therefore the researcher wants to find out the extent to which Lutheran Church as partners in education enterprise finance secondary education through establishing sources of funds, its management and utilization.

1.3.1 The Major Purpose of The Study.
The major purpose of this Study is to find out the extent to which Lutheran Seminary schools as partners in education enterprise finance secondary education.

1.3.2 The Specific Objectives of the Study
Specifically the Study will address the following objectives:
1. To identify sources of fund used in running secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church.
2. To examine the management of the collected funds from the various sources.
3. To analyze the utilization of funds collected from the various sources.

1.4 Research Tasks and Questions
In line with the purpose and objectives, the Study will address three major research tasks and their questions.

Tasks 1
Identifying various sources of funds that are used in running secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church

Research questions
1. What are the main sources of funds that are used in running schools?
2. Does the school have enough sources of funds for its efficient running?
3. How much each student is expected to pay per year as a school fees and other contribution?

Task 2
Examining the management of collected various sources
Research questions
1. Who are involved in planning and making decision of the school budget?
2. Is the school management involved teaching staff and parents in the preparation of school budget?
3. Do the school fund s collected from various sources will managed

Task 3
Analyzing the utilization of the collection from various sources
Research questions
1. What are the activities that have cost elements in assuring quality of teaching/ learning and the general performance of the school?
2. Do you agree that the school funds are well utilized?

1.5 A Conceptual Model for Financing Lutheran Seminary schools Schools in Tanzania.
According to Krishnaswami, (2003) conceptual or theoretical model is the simplified systematic conceptual structures of inter related elements in some schematic from such as narratives statement or mathematical questions. In this Study the conceptual model will be based on the inputs and process variables. It has been argued that there is no single factor that makes a good school and performance. Therefore, the successful school and academic performance depend on:
 Input(s) – Where a successful school is with adequate funds from different sources.
 Process – Where a successful school is one in which there is efficient management of and utilization of the funds, rational allocation of involvement of all stakeholders in planning and making decision on matters related to expenditure and budget. Monitoring and evaluation of the utilized funds.
 Output – where a successful school is one that produces good examination results and good academic performance, highly motivated staffs and well furnished facilities.
Figure 1: Conceptual Model for Financing Education In Lutheran Secondary schools

Source: Mshana, (2010)

1.6 Significance of the Study
This Study is expected to come up with new knowledge of revenue, its management and utilization in Lutheran owned Secondary schools.

Such knowledge will assist planners in education sector, policy makers, managers and other stakeholders on matters related to financing education in Lutheran Owned Secondary schools, Particularly Educational Policy makers.

Finally the Study will develop the interest of future researchers on financing education and the role played by Lutheran Church in financing education in Tanzania particularly secondary education.

1.7 Limitations of Study.
Limitations are those conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusions of the Study and their applications to other situations.
This Study faces a number of limitations.

 There are many schools being run by Lutheran Church but because of limited resources only two secondary schools in Tanga and one in Morogoro regions will be surveyed. Therefore, the sample will be small due to limited resources.
 Most of the schools are located in remote areas; the researcher therefore will need immediate transport to and from those remotely located schools the situation that may hinder him.

1.8 Key Definitions of Concepts.
Finance: Refers to availability of necessary funds in order to achieve a desired end.
Partner: One that share in possession or enjoyment of property or something with another one of two or more persons associated as joint principles carrying out any business with a view of getting profit.
Religious organizations: These refer to those organizations under religious faith or denominations. The major categories of religion in the world are Christianity and Islam. Denominations include Lutheran, Roman, Moravian and Pentecostals among Christians. Also they include Muslim Council of Tanzania (BAKATWA), Africa Muslim Agency (AMA), The Aga Khan and others.
Secondary school: These are schools that provide post – primary education. In simple term it just institution that provide education after pupils’ complete primary education.

1.9 Organization of the Study
This is organized into three chapters; one is an introduction; chapter two is review of related literature. Chapter three comprises research methodology.



The chapter will be reviewing related literature on sources of revenues in secondary school managed by Lutheran Church. It will comprise a thorough theoretical discourse on the concept of financing, historical background of sources of revenues in education, financing education experience from various countries, organization of secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church in Tanzania.

2. 1 The Meaning of Finance

Bohmler, (1956), define finance as an essential field of economic activity and operate through financial institutions. Finance is a complex concept and can not readily be defined in a single simple statement. For the time being, it will serve our purpose to say that it is frequently termed the “science of money” Finance has to do with obtaining money with saving and spending with borrowing and investing.

Furthermore Zymelman (1973) view financing and its provision for education as an essential separate function. As shown by Galabawa (1994) total government control is common in areas where all education services are reflected in the market provision. However partnership in running secondary school education still carries weight due to the scarce resources especially in developing countries

2.2 Background to the Financing of Secondary Education In Tanzania
Education is one of the largest sectors of the national economy in terms of budgetary allocation and human resources involved. Therefore from these all embracing national policy perspectives the education sector derived the following sectoral policy thrust perspectives the education and Culture (MOEC) which, among other things calls for enhancing of partnership in the provision of education and training through the deliberate efforts of private agencies in the provision of education to establish and manage schools and other education institution at levels.

The traditional partners in the education enterprise have always been the state and the church but over time the landscape and contours have dramatically changed such that in Tanzania today the following have to be included in that financing of education. These included the state, private sector religious institutions non-government organization, community based organization, present, pupils, donors and employees, (Omari, 2002).

Generally, the trend shows that, religious institutions for a very long time have been successful partners in fund raising and financing Secondary education with comparison to other parties, in line with this view, Galabawa (1995) maintain that, the involvement of the Christian Churches in secondary education is extensive. The impetus started in 1986 When the government made a bold call on churches and other Non Governmental Organizations to play an even greater role in the provision of Education and health Services.

Majority of the private secondary schools in Tanzania are owned or managed by Religious organizations. This shows that despite the 1969Education Act, Religious Bodies are still interested in Education and most likely playing their spiritual role of providing essential social services to humanity.

In 1994, Christian churches and organizations managed 141 schools in Tanzania ,while there were only twenty schools run by the Muslims,(Galabawa, 1989).This shows that, religious organization particularly Lutheran Church have been an active partner in the development of education in Tanzania.

2.3 The Need for Financing Education
Financing education is the responsibility of both the government and community in general in making sure that every child has access to education regardless of the resources for financing education. Hence there is a need of involving partners in financing education in order to reduce government burden of financing education. Similarly, the Jomtien Declaration of Education for All (EFA) emphasize on involving partners in financing education since government has no capacity to finance education.

Moreover, with regard to the economic crisis facing most of African countries including Tanzania, it is obvious that, government alone can not take the whole responsibility of providing education to its people, chance encouraging partners and intern linkage in the provision of education training, thought establishing and managing schools and other educational institutions.

It is expected that trough involving partners such as the religious organization, NGO’s COBO’ s and private groups, it will reduce the government burden of financing education as well as improving the quality of educations services provided.

Moreover, different partners can result to competition, which in turn can contribute to good performance. As it has been argued by Mosha, (2000) that, effective financing is a crucial factor in the whole question of academic, he further argued that, effective fund raising enhances quality education while inadequate fund raising my be a source of conflict in schools due to lack of enough facilities and other and other necessary conditions to keep education institutions in harmed running, hence encouraging partnership.

Similarly, Galabawa,(1995), unveil that a sustainable financing and management system is a pre-condition for producing secondary education capacity and maintaining minimum levels of quality cervices effective financing helps to create a positive climate, a thin which motivates both teachers and students. It is a catalyst, which makes everyone in an academic instruction committed so as to be winner and produce winners.

Therefore partnership in education provision is inevitable, for quality education for all has to be attained with regard to economic of developing courtiers including Tanzania .With education, the only solution will to accept private financing of education hence partners like churches.

2.4 Limitations and Strength in Financing Education
Financing may contribute to the decline of quality education or may create classes in the society on the basis of religious and ethnicity. Moreover, some of the partners may not be social demand. Noting the dangers of partnership and inter linkages in education provision, Omari (2002) comment that, a partnership is not a Humanitarian Act, but an economic and social process geared to wards the production of better educations services in the most effective and efficiency manner.
All, in all, financing education provision is most appropriate, since education development will only be accelerated if we share ideas and exchange best practices that promote better targeting of resources. Producer harmony and optimize the quality of the product, which is an education services, secondly there must be common objectives such as making and sharing of profits which is case of education, is the production of a well equipped future generation and satisfying current clients parents and pupils.

Moreover, genuine partnership also requires seriousness of purpose on all side education there fore, this include parents, students and responsible partners as well as the government.

2.5 Economic Policies and Financing Education
The history of financing education in Tanzania indicates that, resources allocation will in most cases determined by education policy or policies prevailing at a particular time. Important education policies formulated by the government have been supported financially to affect implementation, Galabawa (1995). Educational policy is, thus, a matter of vital importance, and this is clearly reflected in the increasing share of educational expenditure in both the national budget and the GDP, despite the latter relatively rapid growth.

Education financing is typically one of the largest items government expenditure, often claiming as much one or more of the total budget. Spending in education increases in line with population and income growth and is a long –term investment that requires a predicable income source. Task force higher Education and Society,(2000). In addition to that, Galabawa,(1985) comment that, the development of financing education in Tanzania shows that there is a limit to which central government can depend on fiscal to finance education solely from tax-revenue without destabilizing effects. There is a need to go back to the conventional methods of financing education. In addition to that, Structural Adjustment programmer (SAPs), the word Bank (WB) and the International Monetary funds (IMF) advocated reduction in public financing of education, Butcher, (1994).

In implementing the policy the government initiated the Education sector Development programmer (ESDP) in 1997.The overarching objective of the programmer will that of pulling resources trough the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning implementing, monitoring and evaluation (MOEC,200ia). Its main thrust will be on the enhancement of sources of revenues coordination and cooperation among all educational stakeholders especially religions organizations. .

Table 1: type of Lutheran Secondary school Under Study

S/N Name of school Owner
1 Lwandai Secondary School ELCT-NED
2 Bangala Junior Seminary ELCT-NED
3 Morogoro Junior Seminary ELCT- CD

2.6 Synthesis
Analysis of literature on partnership financing has revealed a number of attributes of interests in partnership financing. It is seems that little research has been done on financing education despite the long history of Lutheran Seminaries as partners who support the finance of education in the country. Lutheran church has been an active partner in financing education particularly secondary education in the country.

The Study of financing in Lutheran Seminary secondary schools is therefore guided by the need to find out various sources of revenue, its management and utilization in Roman Lutheran Secondary School




This chapter presents the research design and methodology that will be employed during data collection. It also covers area of Study. Population, sample and sampling techniques research instruments that will be employed in getting the needed information, validity of the research statements and data analysis plan.

3.1 Research Design
Research design, according to Kothari, (1990) is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Krishnaswami (2003) defines research design as a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research Study.

It specifies the objective of the Study, the methodology and the techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It is a blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. A good research design is the one, which is flexible, appropriate, and economical, minimizes bias, and maximizes there liability of data collected.

The research design differs depending on the purpose of conducting the Study .The research problem determines the type of the design that cold achieve the desired results and required research question .In this Study, a survey research design will adopted. Krishnaswami (2003) view survey as a’ fact –finding’ Study. It is a design of research involving collection of data directly from the population or a sample at particular time. Data may be collected by observation, or interviewing or mailing questionnaires.

In this Study, Qualitative and Quantitative research approaches will both be employed for data collection. In the case of qualitative research approach, interview schedule will be conducted with parents. While for quantitative research approach, questionnaires will be administered to three heads of school who will purposefully sample and 36 teaching staff who will be randomly selected.

3.2 Area of Study
The Study will be conducted in two secondaries owned by Lutheran Church in Tanga and one in Morogoro regions, namely, Lwandai, Bangala Junior and Morogoro Junior Secondary schools. Tanga and Morogoro regions will be chosen because of their familiarity and accessibility to the researcher and its likelihood obtain the needed information for the Study.

3.3 Population
A researcher must know what kind of information she/he wants, who has the information and where to find the person. The people that a researcher has in mind from who she/he can obtain information are called population. Population according to Krishnaswami(2003) is the aggregate or all the units pertaining to a Study; It is the target group to be studied. It is the unit or group of units with one or more characteristic in common that is of interests to the researcher. he population of this Study comprised all secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church in Tanzania.

Due to financial constraints, it will not possible for the researcher to research all schools managed by Lutheran Church in Tanzania, therefore, the target population for this Study will be three secondary schools managed by Lutheran Church in Tanga and Morogoro regions. This sample of the population will select bearing in mind that, the knowledge that will generate from the Study, represented the whole population.

3.3.1 Samples
It is not possible that everybody among the accessible population can participate. So, the research would plan of a small proportion to select who to participate. The Process of selecting the participants is called sampling. Kothari,(1990) define sample as a smaller group of subjects drawn from the population in which a researcher is interested in gaining information and drawing conclusion about the universe if randomly obtained.

Sample is the part of a population. The use of sample in conducting research may be necessitated by some physical social and economic constraints that surround the researcher. In supporting this view, Kenya Makau and Mani(1989) argued that, financial, physical and social constraints might force a researcher to rely only on the part of population to obtain information. Moreover, the use of samples enables the research samples enables the researcher to achieve the same research objectives with reduced resources. The general role that governs the samples is that, the findings on it should reflect as much as possible similar characteristics of those of the findings, which would be obtained. The samples for this Study will respondents from three secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church in Tanga and Morogoro Regions.

3.3.2 Sampling Procedures
Sampling procedure or techniques is a definite plan for obtaining sample from a population. Krishinaswami (2003), define sampling as a process of drawing sample from a large population. In this Study, both simple and random sampling will be used. Simple random sampling is the type of sampling, which provides equal chance to every member in the population to be included in the Study. The researcher prefers simple random sampling for teachers because it reduced bias and errors. Thirty six teachers will be randomly sampled from three schools that will be involved in the Study.

Purposive sampling, on the other hand, is the type of sampling in which the researcher selects samples based on a certain purpose. It will prefer because it enables the researcher to solicit relevant information. In this Study, three head of schools will be purposely sampled for the administered questionnaire. On the other hand, twelve parents will be randomly sampled. This makes a total number of fifty –one respondents.

3..4 Instruments for Data Collection
A researcher cannot collect data without instruments. An instrument is a method of data collection. It makes it easy for the researcher to collection information. The task of the researcher is, therefore, to select suitable instruments data collection the task of carrying out any research investigation must be accompanied with the collection of data.

Many different methods and procedures have been developed to aid in the acquisition of data. These instruments employ distinctive ways of describing and quantifying the data. Each method or instrument is appropriate for certain sources of data, yielding information of the kind and in the form that can be most effectively used, this is according to Best an Khan,(1989). For this particular Study, the researcher instruments in collecting data, namely, documentary reviews, interview guides and questionnaires.

3.4.1 Documentary Review
This involves deriving information by carefully Studying written documents, or visual information from sources called documents. These will include the textbooks, newspapers, articles, speeches, pictures and files. The documents that will be reviewed include various studies related to the subject of Study, which will be obtained from the main library, University of Dar es salaam.

Other documents will be obtained from the schools under Study like the joining instructions, December,(1998), argued that, using documentary review as an instrument of data collection has the following advantages, first, the documents, are easily and in expensively be accessed secondary they are cost effective methods of collecting data,. Two, they provide a source of data which is permanent and available in form that can be checked and they are open to public.

3.4.2 Interview Schedule
In this Study the researcher will prepare structured and unstructured interview questions and conduct interviews with twelve parents who have their children studying in the schools under Study.

Interview is one of the major methods of data collection. Krishanswami 2003), define inter view as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific Study. Interviewing require face contact over telephone.

This is another research instrument that the research employed in collecting data. Cohen, Manion and Morrison, (2000) define research interview as a two – person conversation initiated by interview for specific purpose of obtaining relevant information. It is a research instrument for data collection that involves the collection of data through direct verbal interaction between the interviewee. The interview technique requires the researcher ask question.

It is advantageous because it is quite flexible, adaptable and can be used on many people. Information can be obtained in detail and can be well explained; moreover interview can gather other supplementary information. The interviewer can do more things to improve the percentage of responses and quality of information received.

However, the researcher will find it disadvantageous in that, the interviewees may be highly subjective, biased shy or express discomfort in response. At time they may be unwilling to respond, or questions may be wrong and my take a lot of time to respond to the Study, another limitation is that, personal, and financial information may be refused if face to face interview poses the problem of recording information obtained from the respondent The researcher prepared interview guide on major areas to be investigated. Semi structured and structured interview guide on major areas to be investigated. Semi structured and unstructured interview questions will prepared. Then she held an interview with ten parents who will be randomly selected who had children studying in those schools under Study.

3.4.3 Questionnaire
The researcher will administer questionnaire in person to three heads of school who will be purposively sample and thirty-six teaching staff who will randomly be sampled from three Lutheran Seminary secondary schools involved in this Study.

According to Keya, Makau and Mani (1989), questionnaire has been defined as a formatted set of questions that are drawn up to meet the objectives of the survey. It involves the use of written down items to which the respondent individually responds in writing. The items will be in the form of statement or questions.

3.5 Validity of Research Instruments
In any research, the fundamental rule of the thumb is that every information we get must be accurate. This implies that what we use to obtain that information must also be accurate. Validity in research implies of a research instrument, validity of research procedure (technique), and validity of the research findings (report).

3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
The researcher will introduce himself to all the respective authorities in Tanga and Morogoro regions where the Study will be conducted. After gaining the needed recognition from the relevant respondent s as well as administering the questionnaires in person to the heads of school the researcher will arrange the timetable so as conduct interviews to the sampled parents, teaching staff.

3.3.9 Data Analysis Plan
According to Kothari,(1990), data analysis is a process, which implies editing, coding classification and tabulations of collected data. In this proposal data that will obtained through various procedures will be summarized in table, moreover the no numerical data will be subjected to content analysis.

3.3.10 Ethical Consideration
According to Krishnaswami (2003) Issues of ethics arise primarily out of researcher’s relation with sponsors of research, those who permit access to sources of data and research participants /respondents. He further argued that, of all the ethical issues, the issues concerned with the respondents are far more important, since they constitute the research subject and their individuals from who data are obtained. Taking into consideration this fact the researcher will assure the respondent confidentiality on given information. For those respondents who will be supposed to fill in the questionnaires these will be directed to write down their names or titles.

Best, J. and Kahn, J. (1993). Research In Education, New York: Allyn Bacon Inc.
Cameron, J. and odd, W. (1970) Society, School And Progress in Tanzania, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Cohen, L., Marion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. London: Root Ledge.
Commonwealth (2000) Common Wealth Education Partnership. London: The Stationary Office.
Galabawa, J.C.J. (1995); Financing Education Development, With A Case of Tanzania, Department Of Education: University of Dar es salaam.
Galabawa, J.C.J ( 1989); “Mobilization allocation And Management Of Financial Resources For Education In Tanzania” pamphlet, Department of Education, University of Dar es Salaam.
Keya, S.O., Makau, B.F., and Man, J. (1989); Guidelines For The Formulation of Research Project Proposal. Nairobi, Oxford University Press.
Kothari, C. (1990); Research Methodology: Methods And Technology: New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.
Krishnaswami, O.R (2003). Methodology Of Research In Social Sciences, Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House.
Masudi, A. (1986). The Contribution Of Religious Organizations To The development Of Private Schools In Tanzania, M.A. Thesis, UDSM.
Ministry of Education and Culture (2002a). Education Sector development Program. Dar es Salaam, Ministry of Education and Culture.
Omari, I. ( 2002). “Partnership In Education Provision”, PED, No.22, Faculty Of Education, University of Dar es Salaam.
Sammoff, J. (1994). Copping With Crisis, UNESCO, New York.
United Republic of Tanzania, (1995): Education and Training Policy, MOEC, Dar es Salaam.
Zymelman, M. (1973). Financing And Efficiency In Education: Reference For Administration And Policy Making. Boston: The Nimrod Press.

Appendix A

Lutheran Church for a long time has been active contributors in financing education in Tanzania, particularly Secondary education. The purpose of this study and this questionnaire is to solicit some information on financing in Secondary schools by Lutheran schools.

The information will help to have a better understanding on the issues related to finance and the sources of the funds used to run those secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church. The information that obtained shall confidentially be used for the above stated purpose only and not for malicious intentions.
Please note: Your name should not appear anywhere in this questionnaire.

Thank You.

B. background information of the school
1. Name of the School …...................................
2. Owner of the School …................................
3. District ….....................................................
4. In which year the School was started? …......
5. Number of Students enrolled in 2009?
Please, indicate in the table provided.


6. Number of teaching staff and their qualifications
Please, indicate in the table provided
Qualification Number of Teachers
1. Form Sis
2. Diploma ( Non-education)
3. Diploma in Education
4. University Degree (No-Education)
5. University Degree ( Education)
6. Postgraduate diploma in Education
7. Postgraduate degree ( Masters)
Male.................. Female.................. Total.......................

7. Number of Supporting Staff
1. What are the main sources of revenue used in running the school?
(a) School fees
(b) Contribution from parents
(c) Donors
(d) Funds rising
(e) Others, please specify..................................................................
2. In your view, does the school have enough sources of revenue for its efficiency operation?
(a) Yes
(b) No
3. Who is involved in planning and making decision of the school budget? Please, choose the following:
(a) Heads of the school
(b) Teaching staffs and heads Owners
(c) Managers, Heads and School owners
(d) Members of the School board
(e) Others please specify...............................................................................................

4. Do you agree that, the revenue collected from various sources is well managed?
(a) Strongly Agree
(b) Agree
( c) Disagree
( d) Strongly disagree
5. Would you agree that adequate funding, its proper management and utilization increased Student performance?
(a) Strongly agree
( b) Agree
( c) Disagree
( d) Strongly Disagree

6. How would you value the relationship between adequate funds, its proper management and utilization towards Students performance?
(a) Very high
(b) High
(c) Fair
(d) Low

7. What are the future prospects of the School?
a) Looking for more resources
b) Looking for more Degree holder teachers
c) Increasing capacity building of the school
d) Any other


Lutheran Church for a long time has been active contributors in financing education in Tanzania, particularly Secondary education. The purpose of this study and this questionnaire is to solicit some information on financing Secondary schools by Lutheran schools.

The information will help to have a better understanding on the issues related to finance and the sources of the funds used to run those secondary schools owned by Lutheran Church. The information that obtained shall confidentially be used for the above stated purpose only and not for malicious intentions.
Please note: Your name should not appear anywhere in this questionnaire.

Thank You.

Name of the School...............................................................................
Owner of the School ….......................................................................
1. Sex:
(a) Male
(b) Female
2. Age...............................................................................................
3. Marital status: Married_____ Single______Widow____
4. Religion/Denomination...............................................
5. What is your highest level of academic qualification? Please tick where it is appropriate
( a) Form Six
( b) Diploma ( Non-education)
( c) Diploma in education
( d) University degree ( Non-degree)
( e ) University degree Education
( f ) Postgraduate degree

6. Years of Teaching Experience …......................................................
7. Years of Teaching in this school.......................................................


1. What are the main sources of revenue used in running the School?
( a) School fees
( b) Contribution from Parents
( c ) Donors
( d ) Fundrising
( e ) Others, Please mention them …..................................................................

2. In your view, does the school have enough sources of finance for its efficiency operations?
( a ) Yes
( b ) No

3. Please choose the most appropriate opinion about the academic performance of the school?
( a ) The School performance poor
( b ) The School performance is average
( c ) The Performance is well
( d ) The performance is very well
4. Does the School management pay you well?
( a ) Yes
( b ) No
( c ) At least
( d ) Not at all

5. Do you agree that, adequate salaries have increased teachers' morale and good performance of the school in general?
( a ) Strongly agree
( b ) Agree
( c ) Disagree
( d ) Strongly disagree
( e ) I am not sure
6. Does the school management involve teaching Staff in the preparation of the budget? Please choose among the following;
( a ) Yes
( b ) No
( c ) Not Sure



Q1. Why did you send your child in this school and not in other schools?
Q2. Does your child perform well academically?
Q3. How do you compare your child academic performance with other children who are studying in other schools?
Q4. How much fee do you pay annually?
Q5. Apart from school fees, what are other contributions that the school owes you?
Q6. In your view, does the school have enough sources of finance?
Q7. Who are involved in the process of financing education in this school?
Q8. Do you consider the fees and other sources of finance paid to school enough for running the school.

Masters Of Arts in Education
University of Dar es salaam
February 23, 2010

Dedicated to Michelle Holmes: Thank you For being my Friend

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